Election Battles and the Spectre of Democracy in Germany, 1860–1918
Red Saxony seeks to illuminate the reciprocal relationship between political modernization and authoritarianism in Germany over the span of six decades. Using a regional lens to rethink older assumptions about Germany's changing political culture, the book focuses on contemporary Germans' perceptions of electoral fairness. It devotes special attention to semi-democratic voting systems whereby a general and equal suffrage (for the Reichstag) was combined with limited and unequal ones for local and regional parliaments. Red Saxony illustrates how Germans grew to fear the spectre of democracy. Certainly twists and turns lay ahead, yet that fear made it easier for Hitler and the Nazis to win elections in the 1920s and to entomb German democracy in 1933. (A revised German translation is in preparation.)
This Online Supplement provides readers of Red Saxony with maps, tables, charts, and illustrations that could not be included in the book's print edition due to their large format or use of colour. These items are complementary to the book: their historical context and significance are explained there.
Materials have been grouped together under the same chapter titles found in the book, with dates added in parenthesis for guidance. Where only abbreviated titles of sources have been given, full references can be found in the Online Bibliography.
From time to time, relevant items may be added to the Bibliography and explanatory notes added to individual documents. The titles of all figures, maps, and illustrations here begin with an "S" ("for Online Supplement) followed by a number corresponding to the relevant chapter.
Published online: April 2017. Always under revision.
Copyright © 2017, 2022 James Retallack. Some rights reserved.
Except where otherwise noted, content on this Open Access site, Online Supplement to Red Saxony: Election Battles and the Spectre of Democracy in Germany, 1860–1918 by James Retallack, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The written permission of James Retallack must be obtained for commercial re-use.
Figures, Maps, Illustrations
Chapter 1 On the Threshold of a New Age (1860–1866)
Chapter 2 The Possibilities of Liberal Reform (1866–1874)
Chapter 3 Enemies of the Reich (1870–1877)
Chapter 4 The Struggle Against Revolution (1878–1890)
Chapter 5 Against Liberalism and the Jews (1871–1890)
Chapter 6 Authoritarianism Under Siege (1890–1894)
Chapter 7 Suffrage Reform as Coup d’état (1894–1902)
Chapter 8 “Red Saxony!” (1903–1904)
Chapter 9 Deflecting Democracy (1903–1909)
Chapter 10 Crisis and Retrenchment (1905–1908)
Chapter 11 Dance (1908–1909)
Chapter 12 Politics in a New Key (1909)
Chapter 13 Adrift (1909–1914)
Chapter 14 Democracy Deferred (1914–1918)
On the Threshold of a New Age (1860–1866)
The Possibilities of Liberal Reform (1866–1874)
ENEMIES OF THE REICH (1870–1877)
The Struggle Against Revolution (1878–1890)
Against Liberalism and the Jews (1871–1890)
Authoritarianism Under Siege (1890–1894)
Suffrage Reform as Coup d’État (1894–1902)
“rED sAXONY!” (1903–1904)
Deflecting democracy (1900–1914)
CRISIS AND RETRENCHMENT (1905–1908)
POLITICS IN A NEW KEY (1909)
DEMOCRACY DEFERRED (1912–1918)
I am grateful to members of the FAS IIT group for their assistance in setting up this website on a University of Toronto server. I am personally responsible for all material on this site, including any errors of fact or judgement. I am not responsible for material on third-party sites to which links may send the reader. I welcome any feedback, especially concerning errors in the material posted here. I am also grateful to Dr. Cherie Northon, of Mapping Solutions, Anchorage, Alaska, for the preparation of custom maps, and to Dr. Gavin Wiens, Toronto, for assistance in updating the files in March 2022 prior to moving the site to a new server. If I have failed to reach any copyright holders for the illustrations and maps in this Online Supplement, I encourage them to contact me by email. For updates see my homepage.
A special note of gratitude is owed to Professor Simone Lässig, Professor of Modern and Contemporary History at the University of Braunschweig and Director of the German Historical Institute, Washington, DC; to the late Professor Wolfgang Schröder (Taucha/Leipzig); and to Dr. Jana Moser, leader of the cartography group at the Leibnitz-Institut für Länderkunde (Leipzig) and former director of the Arbeitsstelle „Historischer Atlas von Sachsen“ in Dresden. They granted me permission to use and reproduce selected individual maps from Karte D IV 2 and Karte D IV 3 (and from their respective Beihefte), which are included in the Atlas zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Sachsen. These Beihefte are abbreviated in the notes to Red Saxony as LRTW (for Simone Lässig, Reichstagswahlen im Königreich Sachsen 1871-1912) and SLTW (for Wolfgang Schröder, Landtagswahlen im Königreich Sachsen 1869 bis 1895/1896. Mit einem Exkurs zum Dreiklassen- und Pluralwahlrecht 1896/97 bis 1909/1918). The team that produced this Atlas was led by Professor Karlheinz Blaschke as head of a Wissenschaftliche Gesamtleitung / Redaktionskommission, and was jointly supported by the Landesvermessungsamt Sachsen, the Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig (Philologisch-historische Klasse), the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, the Freistaat Sachsen (Sächsisches Staatsministerium für Wissenschaft und Kunst), and many expert historians and cartographers at the Technische Universität Dresden and other institutions. Without their pioneering work, this study would be much the poorer.
This site is an Online Supplement to James Retallack, Red Saxony: Election Battles and the Spectre of Democracy in Germany, 1860-1918 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), ISBN 978-0-19-966878-6.
Copyright © 2017, 2022 James Retallack. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, content on this Open Access site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The written permission of James Retallack must be obtained for commercial re-use. Department of History, University of Toronto, Sidney Smith Hall, 100 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G3. Latest revision: 15 June 2022.