Online Supplement

 

red saxony

 

Election Battles and the Spectre of Democracy in Germany, 1860–1918

 

 

James Retallack

 

 


 

                      

About the book                          About the author

 

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Table of Contents – Red Saxony

Table of Contents – Online Supplement

 


 

Red Saxony seeks to illuminate the reciprocal relationship between political modernization and authoritarianism in Germany over the span of six decades. Using a regional lens to rethink older assumptions about Germany's changing political culture, the book focuses on contemporary Germans' perceptions of electoral fairness. It devotes special attention to semi-democratic voting systems whereby a general and equal suffrage (for the Reichstag) was combined with limited and unequal ones for local and regional parliaments. Red Saxony illustrates how Germans grew to fear the spectre of democracy. Certainly twists and turns lay ahead, yet that fear made it easier for Hitler and the Nazis to win elections in the 1920s and to entomb German democracy in 1933.

 

 

Rote_Saxonia_1909

 

This Online Supplement provides readers of Red Saxony with maps, tables, charts, and illustrations that could not be included in the book’s print edition due to their large format or use of colour. These items are complementary to the book: their historical context and significance are explained there.

 

Materials have been grouped together under the same chapter titles found in the book, with dates added in parenthesis for guidance. Where only abbreviated titles of sources have been given, full references can be found in the Online Bibliography.

 

From time to time, relevant items may be added to the Bibliography and explanatory notes added to individual documents. The titles of all figures, maps, and illustrations here begin with an “S” (for Online Supplement) followed by a number corresponding to the relevant chapter.

 

This site is maintained on the server of the Information & Instructional Technology group (FAS IIT) in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at the University of Toronto.

 

Published online: April 2017. Always under revision.

 

Copyright © 2017, 2020 James Retallack. Some rights reserved.

 

Creative Commons License

Except where otherwise noted, content on this Open Access site, Online Supplement to Red Saxony: Election Battles and the Spectre of Democracy in Germany, 1860-1918 by James Retallack, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The written permission of James Retallack must be obtained for commercial re-use.

 


 

Contents

 

Figures, Maps, Illustrations

   

Introduction

Chapter 1        On the Threshold of a New Age  (1860–1866)

Chapter 2        The Possibilities of Liberal Reform  (1866–1874)

Chapter 3        Enemies of the Reich  (1870–1877)

Chapter 4        The Struggle Against Revolution  (1878–1890)

Chapter 5        Against Liberalism and the Jews  (1871–1890)

Chapter 6        Authoritarianism Under Siege  (1890–1894)

Chapter 7        Suffrage Reform as Coup d’État  (1894–1902)

Chapter 8        “Red Saxony!”  (1903–1904)

Chapter 9        Deflecting Democracy  (1903–1909)

Chapter 10      Crisis and Retrenchment  (1905–1908)

Chapter 11      Dance  (1908–1909)

Chapter 12      Politics in a New Key  (1909)

Chapter 13      Adrift  (1909–1914)

Chapter 14      Democracy Deferred (1914–1918)

Appendices

 

Archival and Library Sources

 

   PDF     HTML   

 

Bibliography

   PDF 

 


 

introduction

 

 Map S.I.1              

 The German Empire, 1871–1918

 

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Chapter 1    

On the Threshold of a New Age  (1860–1866)

 

 

Figure S.1.1 

Population Increase in Saxony and Other German States, by Period, 1816–1875

 

Figure S.1.2 

Population Growth in Selected Saxon Cities, 1815–1885

 

Figure S.1.3

Population Density in Saxony and Other German States, 1816–1910

 

Figure S.1.4 

Occupational Profile of Saxony’s Population, by Region, 1871

 

Map S.1.1

Geographic Regions of Saxony, 1910

 

Map S.1.2

Administrative Regions of Saxony, 1910

 

Map S.1.3

Population Density in Saxony, 1910

 

Map S.1.4

Principal Industries in Saxony, 1910

 

Map S.1.5

Schulkarte von Sachsen, 1889

 

Map S.1.6

Deutsches Reich. Verteilung der Bevölkerung in Stadt und Land, 1900

 

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Chapter 2    

The Possibilities of Liberal Reform  (1866–1874)

 

Figure S.2.1 

Principal Newspapers in Saxony, November 1866

 

Figure S.2.2 

Reichstag Constituency Contests in Saxony, 12 February 1867

 

Figure S.2.3 

Reichstag Constituency Contests in Saxony, 31 August 1867

 

Map S.2.1

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, February 1867

 

Map S.2.2

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, August 1867

 

Map S.2.3

Reichstag Elections in Saxony (legend), 1871–1918

 

Map S.2.4

Reichstag Constituencies in Saxony (overview 1), 1871–1918

 

Map S.2.5

Reichstag Constituencies in Saxony (overview 2), 1871–1918

 

Map S.2.6

Landtag Elections in Saxony (legend), 1869–1895/96

 

Map S.2.7

Landtag Constituencies in Saxony (rural), 1868–1909

 

Map S.2.8

Landtag Constituencies in Saxony (urban), 1868–1909

 

Map S.2.9

Landtag Elections in Saxony, 1869

 

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Chapter 3    

ENEMIES OF THE REICH  (1870–1877)

 

Figure S.3.1 

Saxon Reichstag Deputies Elected 10 January 1874

 

Figure S.3.2 

Reichstag Constituency Contests in Saxony, 10 January 1877

 

Map S.3.1

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, 1871

 

Map S.3.2

Party Bastions in Saxon Reichstag Elections, 1871

 

Map S.3.3

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, 1874

 

Map S.3.4

Party Bastions in Saxon Reichstag Elections, 1874

 

Map S.3.5

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, 1877

 

Map S.3.6

Party Bastions in Saxon Reichstag Elections, 1877

 

Map S.3.7

Landtag Elections in Saxony, 1871, 1873, 1875

 

Map S.3.8

Karte der Wahlen zum Deutschen Reichstag am 10. Januar 1877

 

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Chapter 4    

The Struggle Against Revolution  (1878–1890)

 

Figure S.4.1 

Bans and Appeals under the Anti–Socialist Law, 1878–1890

 

Figure S.4.2    

Expulsions under the Lesser State of Siege, by District, 1878-1890

 

Figure S.4.3

Expellees under the Lesser State of Siege, Leipzig and the Reich, 1878-1890

 

Figure S.4.4

Contested Reichstag Elections, Saxony and the Reich, 1871-1918

 

Figure S.4.5 

Reichstag Election in 5: Dresden–Old City, 1881

 

Map S.4.1    

Landtag Elections in Saxony, 1877, 1879, 1881

 

Map S.4.2

Landtag Elections in Saxony, 1883, 1885, 1887

 

Map S.4.3

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, 1878

 

Map S.4.4

Party Bastions in Saxon Reichstag Elections, 1878

 

Map S.4.5

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, 1881

 

Map S.4.6    

Party Bastions in Saxon Reichstag Elections, 1881

 

Map S.4.7

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, 1884

 

Map S.4.8

Party Bastions in Saxon Reichstag Elections, 1884

 

Map S.4.9

Reichstagswahlen vom 30ten Juli 1878

 

Map S.4.10

Reichstagswahlen von 1884

 

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Chapter 5    

Against Liberalism and the Jews  (1871–1890)

 

Figure S.5.1 

Saxon Landtag Deputies, Occupation and Party Affiliation, 1869–1918

 

Figure S.5.2

Saxon Landtag Deputies, Occupation and Party Affiliation, 1869, 1881, 1895

 

Map S.5.1

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, 1887

 

Map S.5.2

Party Bastions in Saxon Reichstag Elections, 1887

 

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Chapter 6    

Authoritarianism Under Siege  (1890–1894)

 

Figure S.6.1 

Reichstag Constituency Contests in Saxony, 15 June 1893

 

Map S.6.1

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, 1890

 

Map S.6.2

Party Bastions in Saxon Reichstag Elections, 1890

 

Map S.6.3

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, 1893

 

Map S.6.4

Party Bastions in Saxon Reichstag Elections, 1893

 

Map S.6.5

Landtag Elections in Saxony, 1889, 1891, 1893

 

Map S.6.6

Reichstagswahlen von 1890

 

Map S.6.7

Die Reichstagswahlen von 1893

 

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Chapter 7    

Suffrage Reform as Coup d’État  (1894–1902)

 

Figure S.7.1 

SPD and Free Trade Union Membership in Leipzig, 1893–1898

 

Map S.7.1    

Landtag Elections in Saxony, 1895

 

Map S.7.2

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, 1898

 

Map S.7.3

Party Bastions in Saxon Reichstag Elections, 1898

 

Map S.7.4

Die Reichstagswahlen von 1898

 

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Chapter 8    

“rED sAXONY!”  (1903–1904)

 

Figure S.8.1 

Urban–Rural Votes in 13: Leipzig–County, June 1903

 

Map S.8.1    

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, 1903

 

Map S.8.2

Party Bastions in Saxon Reichstag Elections, 1903

 

Map S.8.3

Gustav Freytag’s Reichstags-Wahlkarte des Deutschen Reiches, 1903

 

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Chapter 9    

Deflecting democracy  (1900–1914)

 

Illustration S.9.1

“About the Suffrage Riots” (Simplicissimus, 1908)

 

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Chapter 10  

CRISIS AND RETRENCHMENT  (1905–1908)

 

Map S.10.1

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, 1907

 

Map S.10.2

Party Bastions in Saxon Reichstag Elections, 1907

 

Map S.10.3

Deutsches Reich. Reichstagswahlen vom 25. Januar 1907

 

Map S.10.4

Reichstagswahlen Januar–Februar 1907

 

Map S.10.5

Die Reichstagswahlen im Januar und Februar 1907

 

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Chapter 11  

DANCE  (1908–1909)

 

Resize of Illustration S.11.1 Suffrage Demonstration in Leipzig 1 Nov 1908_2Illustration S.11.1  

Suffrage Demonstration in Leipzig, 1 November 1908

 

Illustration S.11.2  

Suffrage Demonstrators in Leipzig, 1 November 1908

 

Figure S.11.1

Expected Support for Social Democracy, by Number of Ballots Awarded, 1909

 

Map S.11.1  

Landtag Constituencies in Saxony, 1909

 

Map S.11.2  

Grasers Karte von Sachsen ... Landtags- und Reichstagswahlkreise, c. 1911

 

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Chapter 12  

POLITICS IN A NEW KEY  (1909)

 

Figure S.12.1

Principal Social Democratic Newspapers in Saxony, 1897–1917

 

Figure S.12.2

SPD Press, Agitation, and Election Costs in Saxony, 1907–1912

 

Figure S.12.3

Profile of Landtag Electors, by Occupation and Age, in 1: Zittau, 1909

 

Figure S.12.4

Plural Ballots Awarded by Category, 1: Zittau, 1909

 

Figure S.12.5

Reliance on Plural Ballots, by Party and Constituency Type, Saxony 1909

 

Figure S.12.6

Landtag Deputies Elected, by Constituency, Saxony 1909

 

Figure S.12.7

Working–Class Voters and Social Democratic Voters, Saxony 1909

 

Map S.12.1

Saxon Landtag Constituencies (rural), 1909

 

Map S.12.2

Saxon Landtag Constituencies (urban), 1909

 

Map S.12.3

Landtag Elections in Saxony (rural), 1909

 

Map S.12.4

Landtag Elections in Saxony (urban), 1909

 

Map S.12.5

Landtag Elections in Saxony, 1909: Dresden I–VII

 

Map S.12.6

Landtag Elections in Saxony, 1909: Leipzig I–VII

 

Map S.12.7

Landtag Elections in Saxony, 1909: Chemnitz I–IV

 

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Chapter 13  

ADRIFT  (1909–1914)

 

Illustration S.13.1

“Gruesome Crime in Berlin” (Simplicissimus, 1910)

 

 

Illustration S.13.2     

“On January 12th” (Simplicissimus, 1912)

 

 

Map S.13.1

Reichstag Elections in Saxony, 1912

 

Map S.13.2

Party Bastions in Saxon Reichstag Elections, 1912

 

Map S.13.3  

Die Vertretung der Wahlkreise bei Schluß des Reichstags 1911

 

Map S.13.4

Reichstagswahlkarte vom Januar 1912

 

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Chapter 14

DEMOCRACY DEFERRED  (1912–1918)

 

Illustration S.14.1

Red Saxonia (Simplicissimus, 1909)

 

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Appendix S.1

Saxon Election Law of 5 May 1909: Translation (excerpt)  (HTML)

 

Appendix S.2

Saxon Election Law of 5 May 1909: Localities in 91 Constituencies  (HTML)  (PDF)

 

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I am grateful to members of the FAS IIT group for their assistance in setting up this website on a University of Toronto server. I am personally responsible for all material on this site, including any errors of fact or judgement. I am not responsible for material on third-party sites to which links may send the reader. I welcome any feedback, especially concerning errors in the material posted here. I am also grateful to Dr. Cherie Northon, of Mapping Solutions, Anchorage, Alaska, for the preparation of custom maps. If I have failed to reach any copyright holders for the illustrations and maps in this Online Supplement, I encourage them to contact me by email. For updates see my homepage.

 

A special note of gratitude is owed to Professor Simone Lässig, Professor of Modern and Contemporary History at the University of Braunschweig and Director of the German Historical Institute, Washington, DC; to the late Professor Wolfgang Schröder (Taucha/Leipzig); and to Dr. Jana Moser, leader of the cartography group at the Leibnitz-Institut für Länderkunde (Leipzig) and former director of the Arbeitsstelle “Historischer Atlas von Sachsen” in Dresden. They granted me permission to use and reproduce selected individual maps from Karte D IV 2 and Karte D IV 3 (and from their respective Beihefte), which are included in the Atlas zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Sachsen. These Beihefte are abbreviated in the notes to Red Saxony as LRTW (for Simone Lässig, Reichstagswahlen im Königreich Sachsen 1871–1912) and SLTW (for Wolfgang Schröder, Landtagswahlen im Königreich Sachsen 1869 bis 1895/1896. Mit einem Exkurs zum Dreiklassen– und Pluralwahlrecht 1896/97 bis 1909/1918). The team that produced this Atlas was led by Professor Karlheinz Blaschke as head of a Wissenschaftliche Gesamt­leitung / Redaktionskommission, and was jointly supported by the Landesvermessungsamt Sachsen, the Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig (Philologisch–historische Klasse), the Bundes­ministerium für Bildung und Forschung, the Freistaat Sachsen (Sächsisches Staatsministerium für Wissenschaft und Kunst), and many expert historians and cartographers at the Technische Universität Dresden and other institutions. Without their pioneering work, this study would be much the poorer.

 

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This site is an Online Supplement to James Retallack, Red Saxony: Election Battles and the Spectre of Democracy in Germany, 1860–1918 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), ISBN 978-0-19-966878-6.

 

Creative Commons License

Copyright © 2017, 2020 James Retallack. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, content on this Open Access site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The written permission of James Retallack must be obtained for commercial re-use. Department of History, University of Toronto, Sidney Smith Hall, 100 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada  M5S 3G3.